The concept of sustainable agriculture continues to grow, enriched and sharpened with the study of thinking, models, methods, and theory of various disciplines to become an applied science that studies perpetuated for the benefit of mankind to present and future generations. Approach to sustainable agriculture and holistic system relates various aspects or disciplines gatrs and established among other agronomic, ecological, economic, social, and cultural.
Sustainable agricultural system also contains a moral call to act on the environment kebijakkan natural resources by considering the three dimensions or aspects of the following
1. Environmental Awareness (Ecologically Sound), agricultural cultivation systems should not deviate from the existing ecological system. The balance is an indicator of the harmonization of the mechanism of ecological systems is controlled by the laws of nature.
2. Economic value (Economic Valuable), agricultural cultivation systems should refer to the profit and loss considerations, both for themselves and others, to pandek term and long term, as well as for organisms in the ecological system and outside the ecological system.
3. Social or civic character (Socially Just), agricultural systems must be in harmony with social norms and cultural noma adopted and cherished by the surrounding community as an example a farmer will seek diperkarangan farm’s own chickens. May be economically and ecologically promising a decent profits, but viewed from the social aspect can provide a less good aspects for example, air pollution because of the smell of chicken droppings.
Social norms and culture must be considered, especially in sustainable agricultural systems in Indonesia are usually the distance between the residential population in the agricultural area so close. Supported by the high social value of the main considerations before planning an agricultural business in a broad sense.
Five criteria for managing a system of sustainable agriculture
1. Economic feasibility (economic viability)
2. Nuanced and friendly with ecology (accologically sound and friendly)
3. Socially acceptable (Social just)
4. Deserving of culture (Culturally approiate)
5. Holistic systems approach (systems approach and hollisticc)
Since the 1980 study and discussion to formulate the concept of sustainable development operational and universally accepted continues. Pezzy (1992) noted, 27 the definition of the concept of sustainability and sustainable development, and there are many tettunya miss another note. Although many variations of the definition of sustainable development, including sustainable agriculture, which is widely accepted that rests on three pillars: economic, social, and ecological (Munasinahe, 1993). In other words, the concept of sustainable agriculture in the three-dimensional orientation of sustainability, namely: the sustainability of economic enterprises (profit), the sustainability of human social life (people), and the sustainability of natural ecological (planet).
Economic dimension related to the concept of maximization of income stream that can be obtained by at least maintain a productive asset base in the revenue gain. The main indicator is the economic dimension tingat efficiency and competitiveness, urbanization and the growth of value added and economic stability. Emphasizes the economic dimension aspect of human economic needs for present or future generations.
Social dimension is a populist orientation, related to the need for social welfare as reflected by the harmonious social life (including preventing social conflict), preservation of cultural diversity and socio-cultural capital, including the protection of ethnic minorities. Therefore, poverty reduction, equity and income opportunities, social participation and political culture of social stability are important indicators that need to be considered in the implementation of development.
Dimension of the natural environment emphasizes the need for stability of natural ecosystems that include biological living systems and natural materials. Included in this case is the maintenance of biodiversity and biological resources flexible, land resources, water and Agro-climate, and environmental health and comfort. The emphasis is on preservation of power and dynamics of resilient ecosystems to adapt to change rather than on conservation sustu static ideal conditions is impossible to be realized. The third dimension, three sehinnga interplay should be considered balanced. Social system is stable and healthy and natural resources and environment is the basis for economic activity, while economic prosperity is a prerequisite for maintaining social stability and cultural preservation of natural resources and the environment. Social systems that are unstable or ill will tend to lead to actions that damage the sustainability of natural resources and environmental health damage, while the threat of the preservation of natural resources and environment can encourage social disorder and disease.
Vision development (agriculture) is continuous realization of the ideal scenario golden age conditions, which in Indonesian constitution is called fair and prosperous, and the avoidance of destitution plagues circle. The ideal vision is universally accepted that sustainable agriculture (sustainable agriculture) became the basic principle of global agricultural development, including in Indonesia. Hence the development of agricultural systems towards sustainable farming is one of the primary mission of agricultural development in Indonesia.
Perspective of sustainable agriculture have been socialized globally as an ideal direction of agricultural development. Sustainable agriculture and even today no longer a discourse but has become a global movement. Sustainable agriculture has become the basis of preparation of the implementation of protocol rules (rules of conduct) or standard operating procedures “Good Agricultural Practices” (Good Practices = Agricultur GAP) as a global movement of sustainable agricultural practices will be a mission with the international community, countries, development agencies, community self-help organizations and international agencies helped push consumer and supervise the implementation of the principles of sustainable agriculture. Producer compliance with standards of sustainable agricultural practices became one of the attributes of consumer preferences for agricultural products. Therefore, every company must always abide by agribusiness principles of Good Agricultural Practice (PPB) in order to gain market access, especially in international markets
Problems and challenges faced in sustainable agricultural systems are:
1. Build a good government and the positioning of agriculture as the mainstay sectors of national economy.
2. Achieve self-sufficiency of food in order to free world trade and unfair
3. Reducing the number of poor farmers, build a base for the participation of farmers and the equitable distribution of development results
4. Increasing agricultural growth
5. Build terkoordanatif agribusiness system
6. Conserve natural resources and environmental functions
7. Build an efficient system of science and technology